“Allahu Akbar,”(God is greatest) is a word which has changed the perception of many about Islam in Europe, as an alert of jihadist attacks. Migration and refugee status are strategic aspect to be reviewed by European nations, as it constitutes a major menace to the community as well as the European press. The United Nations’ (UN) Global study on smuggling of migrants revealed that in 2016 about 375, 000 persons took smuggling routes across the Mediterranean to Europe and that about 480, 000 persons as well transited from sub-Saharan countries to North Africa. The Europol report reveals that an estimated 90% of migrants transit through the Mediterranean were facilitated by smugglers. There exist several international treaties and conventions to combat the emerging threat to human security. The 2000 UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime and its protocols, with a major Protocol the Prevention, Suppression and Punishment Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, and the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air (also referred to as the Palermo Protocols).
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