Islam is a religion of peace; though there exist different cultures within. Implementing actions against violent extremism or jihadist tendencies demurs a formidable security challenge, due to its evolving landscape. From Al Qaeda to Boko Haram, ISIS to Al Shabaab, Hezbollah to Daesh and even the Taliban, attacks against the ‘West’[1] and Africa are eminent, as sovereignty free actors continue to aspire to stage humiliating attacks (attacks on hard targets)[2]. The United Nations and the African Union through consultative meetings have adopted mechanisms to counter the global menace[3]. Nonetheless, the culture continuous as seen below in the terrorism function.

The terrorism function examines the modus operandi of sovereignty free actors. Technological innovation facilitates crimes, as jihadists use such system to breach in to government systems, financial institutions, websites defacement, recruit and propagate radical doctrine. They engage in hacking[4], skimming[5], phishing, identity theft, cyber jihad[6] and website defacement[7] of strategic state infrastructures through cyber-attacks[8] and botnets.

Operations by Jihadists are usually conducted with light and heavy weapons. Light weapons are portable, while heavy weapons are infantry platoon. Most of the heavy weapons used during jihadists’ attacks are but not limited to mortar, rocket propelled, grenade, grenade launcher and machine guns. In recent time, jihadists engage attacks with sophisticated technology, the civil aviation industry prone to such. For example, the 9/11 attacks in the United States of America in 2001 and the attempt by Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab[9] in 2009, are substantial events to showcase U.S military machine intelligence failure and alert future attacks with flying birds[10].

Target selections is strategic issue in relation to jihadist tendencies; soft target or hard target[11] will appeal to the rate of civilian casualties. Soft targets are areas like markets, hospitals, stadiums, shopping malls, Educational milieu[12], hotels and beach[13]. While hard targets are military bases, embassies and strategic international entities like the United Nations building[14]. Target selection keeps changing with humiliating attacks (attacks on hard targets) on strategic state infrastructures.

The Future of Terrorism and Jihadist Tendencies

Media coverage and high rate civilian casualties are two factors that moderate terrorist attacks. Attacks on hard targets expose some of the challenging states and international organization encounter in the fight against global terrorism. The increasing alliances amongst terrorist groups is another serious threat to regional and international organized crimes agencies. Terrorism function predicts future trend of international security. It points out the path to youthful radicalization, cyber terrorism and the use of flying birds ‘drones’ for future attacks.

Cyber-attacks and website defacement have become the new ‘game’ for sovereignty free actors in the quest to justify ‘jihad’[15] and restrain from religious blasphemy of the Muslim spiritual leader ‘Prophet Muhammed’. Reviving ancient Muslim ideology ‘caliph’ is one of the major factors raised by jihadists. Religious propaganda which has led to alliances and fractions like Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and its affiliates in the Islamic Maghreb (North Africa), and the split of Boko-Haram and its links to the Islamic States.

The 9/11 attacks redefined security strategy cross the globe. The U.S. military machine is now focusing on technology innovation to combat the global menace. The U.S. military machine (Pentagon) had never witnessed such humiliating attacks. As such, the development of the flying birds ‘drones’ has to be introduced for contemporary warfare.  The strategy has been used in the Middle East to combat the Islamic state, Taliban, Daesh and Al Qaeda. Artificial intelligence is exploited by terrorist organizations against security agencies, national, regional and international, the flying bird is an eventual threat, which can be exploited for both hard and soft target attacks.

More so, psychology of evil depression is a justificative factor for youthful radicalization. Rape, migration[16], multiculturalism, cold cash and murder or suicide are factors that initiate youths in to jihadist tendencies. They wish to avenge loved ones and defend a self-proclaimed doctrine exposed through misinterpreted verse of the holy Quran. For instance; Hamza Bin Laden, the son of Osama Bin Laden, engaged in radicalization first to avenge his father and to continue deviant trends of ‘terrorism’, implementation of ‘sharia’ and identity through the creation of a ‘caliph’. Also, migration and multiculturalism are of great importance in youthful radicalization, as most travel to the Middle East to be trained.

Mohammed Emwazi (Jihadi John) shocked the world through a video in which he carried out a series of executions. His path to radicalism began when he was grilled at London’s Heathrow Airport by a British security officer and his Quran was allegedly placed on the floor by one of his interrogators[17].

Combatting terrorism and jihadist tendencies will require three issues; review of civil military relations, religious principles, respect of culture[18], and redefining territorial boundaries particularly in the Middle East. Records of international non-governmental organizations expose serious human rights abuse, young ladies raped by soldiers engaged in peace keeping missions, famine used as a weapon for the increasing number of sex slaves alongside diseases like HIV Aids.


The increasingly deviant behavior by some religious clerics in Europe has led to the clash of cultures and justification by violent extremism[19]. As such, website defacements have been used in order to eradicate religious blasphemy against ‘prophet Muhammed’[20]. Scholars like Cheikh Saleh ibn Abdul Aziz Al Cheikh’s[21] presents Islam as a religion of peace, and Allah always poses for unity. The threat ‘extremism’ is socio-political, the Quran which is a holy scripture can be used to breachthe ‘war’. Imams should use the Quran to preach peace and unity despite the misinterpretation of the scriptures by religious fundamentalists. Territorial boundary dispute is another serious security challenge due to the failure of the Westphalia treaty of 1648. The United Nations has also demonstrated some lapses in demarcating territorial boundaries and recognizing states which adhere to all sociological component, the rhetoric justifies fragmentation of states and the rise of jihadists around the globe[22].


ITCT does not necessarily endorse any or all views expressed by the author in the article.


[1] JIHAD, WAR, AND TERRORISM by George W. Gawrych, and also Christopher L. Izant (2010) The Crusades and

Jihad: Theological Justifications for Warfare in the Western and Islamic Just War Traditions

[2] Dr. Muhammed Sayed al-Tantawi condemned the killing of innocent civilians by radical Muslims during his presentation at the World Ulama Conference in July 2003

[3]The United Nations general assembly on 8 September 2006, adopted a global instrument to enhance national, regional and international efforts to combat terrorism and jihadist tendencies. This instrument is known as the UN 4 Pillars of Counter Terrorism.

[4]Imam Samudra the brain behind the 2002 Bali bombings, advocated for cyber-attacksvia credit card fraud in other to level the protein alliance (America and Britain) to their knee in his book written in prison.

[5] Reyes, N. (2016) Women and Terrorism: Challenging Traditional Gender Roles.Undergraduate Journal of Political Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 2016, Pp. 119–124

[6] Dorothy E. Denning; The Jihadi Cyberterror Threat, slide 38

http://www.nps.navy.mil/da/faculty/DorothyDenning/index.htm dedennin@nps.edu

[7] Halverson, Jeffry, and Amy Way. “The Curious Case of Colleen LaRose: Social Margins, New Media, and Online Radicalization.” Media, War & Conflict, 5.2 (2012):\139-153.

[8] ‘Should Africa worry about cyber-attacks from extremists’ by Richard Chelin. Enactafric.org

[9] Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab and the Christmas Day Attack: Why Aren’t Lessons Learned? By David Rubens

[10] Counter-terrorism Pitfalls: What the U.S. Fight against ISIS and al-Qaeda Should Avoid

Crisis Group Special Report N°3, 22 March 2017

[11] Read Malcolm W. Nance’s ‘Terrorist Recognition Handbook: APractitioner’sManual for Predicting and Identifying Terrorist Activities. Third Edition’, Chapter 9,P.91-92

[12]Al-Shabaab Attack on Garissa University in Kenya by START Background Report , April 2015

[13] Jones, G. et al (2016) Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency in Somalia. Assessing the Campaign against Al Shabaab. Published by the RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif.P.9


[15]John Esposito, Jihad: Holy or Unholy War? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

[16] Arena, M. (2017) Islamic Terrorism in the West and International Migrations: The “Far” or “Near” Enemy Within?

What is the Evidence? European University Institute; Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies

[17]Terrorism an Intellectual War by Saron Messembe Obia

[18] David Rand’s; Charlie Hebdo Cartoons: Respectful of Muhammad. AFT Blog #50 – 2015-01-24 –

www.atheology.ca  also read A Rejoinder To Pope’s Allegations Against Islam by Mukhtar A. Cheema, P.1

[19]Read; Islam and the West by Jim Seghers.

[20] The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, By Michael H. Hart, New York: Hart Publishing

Company Inc., 1978, p. 33

[21]Cheikh Saleh ibn Abdul Aziz Al Cheikh’s “ La moderation et le juste –milieu et leur effet sur la vie de musulmans”

[22]Jihad and Just War: A Religious Game by Saron Messembe Obia, also readIslam and the West by Jim Seghers. P.2



Published By: